I grew up in Oregon, and what's below is pretty much what people call stuff in the bigger cities of the Pacific Northwest. In the rural areas (and Eastern parts of the states) it's anyone's guess. Probably matches the dustbowl better there.
WHAT DO YOU CALL:
1. A body of water, smaller than a river, contained within relatively narrow banks?
2. What the thing you push around the grocery store is called?
3. A metal container to carry a meal in?
4. The thing that you cook bacon and eggs in?
Frying pan (or skillet)
5. The piece of furniture that seats three people?
A sofa or couch (these are interchangeable).
6. The device on the outside of the house that carries rain off the roof?
Gutters (along the roof line) and drainpipes or downspouts (vertical pipes from roof to ground)
7. The covered area outside a house where people sit in the evening?
Porch if it's in front of the house. But on the West Coast, a lot of people have "decks" on the back or side of the house. If they're covered, it's usually with a trellis/lattice. If it's a solid roof and not in front of the house, then the thing is not a deck. We don't have a name for those (they're not common).
8. Carbonated, sweetened, non-alcoholic beverages?
Pop was what I always said (sorry-- that's the Pacific NW term), but since moving to California I'll say "soda" more often now.
9. A flat, round breakfast food served with syrup?
10. A long sandwich designed to be a whole meal in itself?
Grinder (in Oregon) or Sub
11. The piece of clothing worn by men at the beach?
Swimsuit or bathing suit
12. Shoes worn for sports?
Tennis shoes (even when they're not for tennis), or sometimes sneakers
13. Putting a room in order?
14. A flying insect that glows in the dark?
Firefly (same as the Midwest, because we don't have fireflies out West!)
15. The little insect that curls up into a ball?
Pill bug. When I was little and had no exposure to other people, these were "sow bugs"-- but nobody else in Oregon says that, so I think that's a Utah-ism from my dad. In California, people apparently call this a "roly poly." I seriously thought that was a name made up by the people at my kids' nursery school, but apparently it's common useage in California!
16. The children's playground equipment where one kid sits on one side and goes up while the other sits on the other side and goes down?
Teeter-totter. Some people also use see-saw.
17. How do you eat your pizza?
With my hands. At a restaurant, I might use a fork, but usually not.
18. What's it called when private citizens put up signs and sell their used stuff?
Garage sale (even when it's not held in a garage, but where I grew up the garage is always the backup plan because of the rain).
19. What's the evening meal?
Dinner (My Dad calls this supper, and my mother used to announce supper. But "supper" is what they say where my Dad grew up, and he's very inflexible about things sometimes. So this might have been my mother appeasing him. Or because her mother was from Missouri. I don't know... BUT, where I grew up, people say "dinner" and not "supper")
19b. What's the mid-day meal?
20. The thing under a house where the furnace and perhaps a rec room are?
21. What do you call the thing that you can get water out of to drink in public places?
22. The back part of a car that opens up and you put stuff in?
23. The little box that you step into and it takes you to the next floor?
24. Concrete path that you walk on?
25. Handheld light that takes batteries that you use to see at night?
26. Knitted garment for all ages that warms you from the waist up?
27. Cloth wrapped around a baby?
28. Babies sleep in?
A crib or bassinette
29. Babies are pushed around in?
A stroller (if covered, it might be called a "baby carriage")
30. Wall-mounted Kitchen Storage?
A cupboard or cabinet
31. Sink attachment that allows wide dispersal of water (separate from the faucet)?
Sprayer (There actually IS no name for this that I know of).
32. Stand-alone(usually) furniture piece with doors found in a dining room for dishes?
China cabinet, or china hutch (this latter one is a California term)
33. Stand-alone (usually) furniture piece with drawers and possibly small doors found in a dining room for dishes and linens?
Same as above.
34. Separate foot-rest for chair or sofa?
Footstool (sometimes an ottoman)
35. Locking mechanism mounted on a window?
Latch (or window latch)
36. Those little lobster-like creatures that live in creeks and rivers?
37. Fruit-based concoction spread on bread?
Jelly (no seeds) or jam (seeds).